Currently, there is no effective drug therapy to prevent cataract formation.
Since smoking contributes to the risk of developing cataracts, smoking cessation is a vital step in cataract prevention.
Wearing sunglasses that block ultraviolet light and a hat with a wide brim will help reduce eye exposure to UV radiation and may cut the risk of cataracts. Virtually all sunglasses with tinted plastic lenses provide protection against UV radiation; there is no relationship between the cost of a pair of sunglasses and its UV-blocking ability.
Whether certain medications can reduce the risk of cataracts is controversial. The results of trials of medications, such as aspirin or hormone replacement therapy, have been contradictory. Some researchers have proposed that antioxidant vitamins from foods or vitamin supplements might help prevent cataracts by protecting against free radicals--unstable oxygen molecules that over time can damage various components of the lens. Population studies have found a link between high intakes of antioxidants and a reduced incidence of cataracts, but results from the Age-Related Eye Disease Study, a large, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, found no such benefit from antioxidant supplements.