And make eye contact with people around you. No need to stare down anyone, but a moment of eye contact can let potentially threatening people know that you've seen them.
Anyone who's lived in a tourist destination can attest that fumbling with a map and looking lost does not project confidence. In fact, pulling out a paper map or consulting your smartphone is a three-fold offense: It diverts your attention, occupies your hands and reeks of uncertainty. Whether you're an out-of-towner or turned around in your own city, look up directions to your destination before leaving home. If you must consult your map or phone while out and about, step inside a building, such as a coffee shop, convenience store or hotel lobby, while reorienting yourself.
Have company. From the posses of sheriffs (and rappers), to the buddy systems of first graders, walking with a friend is one of the simplest tactics for radiating confidence and security. Rubin stresses you can't throw away the first three tips now that you've got a buddy – after all, two friends in a dark ally staring down at their text messages is still unsafe. But as long as you're all smart, there's safety in numbers.