"We do know that, having to do things like answer an email at night is associated with feelings of guilt for women but not for men, and that guilt is associated with psychological distress," Leupp said.
Though researchers didn't study the nature of women's jobs, prior research has shown the greatest psychological benefits from jobs in which women have autonomy and more control over their schedule, she added.
So how can working moms cope?
"Be gentle with yourself and accept that balancing work and family feels hard because it is hard, rather than feeling that guilty or unsuccessful if you can't devote as much time as you would like to your job and to your family," Leupp said.
For more information about working women, visit the Women Employed.
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