"From head to toe, with every aspect of trauma care, we made subtle but substantial changes in the way people are treated," Rhee said.
Today, all Rangers carry kits with pressure dressings, tourniquets and other medical supplies needed for emergency care. All Rangers are taught the basics of emergency care. Others -- from cooks to infantrymen -- go through additional training and become emergency medical technicians.
Of the 419 injuries, about 42 percent of tourniquets were applied by non-medical personnel; 26 percent of all attempts to stop bleeding were done by non-medical personnel, according to the report.
Other aspects of TCCC included having a "line commander" who takes responsibility for casualty care, and a registry in which incidents and outcomes are recorded, allowing for analysis and quality improvement, Kotwal said.
Among the advances: Kotwal and his colleagues showed that using fentanyl lozenges could help ease pain when it wasn't possible to start an IV with painkillers.
Gradually, the rest of the military is adopting the TCCC guidelines, Rhee said.
The Wounded Warrior Project has more on wounded U.S. servicemen and women, and how to help.
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