Best Children's Hospitals 2013-14: Guide to the Terms

The following terms appear in the pediatric hospital rankings.

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The following terms appear in the 2013-14 Best Children's Hospitals rankings. A complete explanation of the methodology and details of the measures defined below are available in a downloadable PDF report.

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Terms Used in More Than One Specialty
Advanced clinical services Availability of specified teams, programs and resources that address particular types of patients. The mix varies by specialty. See individual specialties below.
Advanced technologies Availability of specified diagnostic and therapeutic technologies. The kind and number vary by specialty. See individual specialties below.
Adoption of health information technology Hospitals received credit for implementing and appropriately using electronic medical records and computerized physician order entry.
Availability of subspecialists Evaluates the presence of a variety of physician specialists, surgeons and dedicated full-time medical staff in a particular specialty who are critical to the delivery of appropriate care by pediatric hospitals. See individual specialties below.
Catheter procedure volume Relative number of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures performed in past year by means of a catheter inserted into a blood vessel and moved to a targeted area.
Clinical support services Access to a mix of medical and surgical services that varies by specialty. See individual specialties below.
Commitment to best practices Use of guidelines, registries and other accepted measures. The measures vary by specialty. See individual specialties below.
Commitment to clinical research Degree of participation in clinical trials and bench-to-bedside research. The measures vary by specialty. See individual specialties below.
Commitment to quality improvement Participation in activities that can enhance care, such as external review of patient and parent satisfaction, public reporting of quality-related performance data, and participating in national quality initiatives. See individual specialties below.
Efforts to involve families Enlisting family members in the care of a child, for example by having a parent advisory committee, having parents or family members on two key standing committees, and including parents in clinical decision-making through family-centered rounds, care conferences and other participatory programs.
Fellowship programs Participation in specialty training programs. The measures vary by specialty. See individual specialties below.
Nonsurgical procedure volume Relative number of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures performed in past year by means of endoscopy, a tube inserted through the throat or other body opening and moved to a targeted area.
Nurse Magnet recognition Meets American Nurses Credentialing Center formal standards for nursing excellence.
Nurse-patient ratio Relative ratio of full-time registered nurses to daily average number of inpatients hospitalwide. The higher the ratio, the more nurses caring for patients. Not specialty-specific except in Neonatology, where ratio reflects only neonatal ICU nurses and average daily NICU patients.
Overall score in this specialty Summarizes quality of care in specialty in range of 0 to 100. The highest-performing hospital in a specialty receives a score of 100.
Patient and family services In all specialties, reflects how many of the following eight are offered: family resource center, sleep rooms for parents and siblings, school intervention program, Ronald McDonald house or other residential facility, and family access to certified child life specialists, family-support specialists, pediatric psychologists and interpreter services. Additional services in Neonatology and Nephrology are shown below under those specialties.
Prevention of ICU infections Measures success at minimizing central-line bloodstream infections and urinary tract infections in ICU patients.
Prevention of pressure ulcers Reflects rates of hospital-acquired pressure ulcers (stages 3 and 4 and unstageable).
Procedure volume Relative number of tests and noninvasive procedures (in Orthopedics, relative number of tests and surgical procedures).
Rank in this specialty A hospital’s place among nationally ranked medical centers.
Reputation with specialists Percentage of pediatric specialists responding to U.S. News surveys who named hospital among the 10 best for especially challenging cases and procedures in their specialty. Responses from surveys in 2011, 2012 and 2013 were combined.
Specialized clinics and programs Availability of certain programs for patients with specific conditions. The mix varies by specialty. See individual specialties below.
[Specialty] patient volume Relative number of patients in past year who had specified disorders or received specified procedures.
Surgery volume Relative number of patients in specialty who had specified operations in past year.
Use of infection-preventing measures Indicates adoption of measures known to reduce hospitalwide infections, such as hand hygience, vaccination and use of antimicrobials, and degree of success in infection reduction.
NA Not applicable.
NR No response.
Specialty-Specific Terms

Cancer

Accredited for BMT and tissue transplant Meets standards set by Foundation for the Accreditation of Cellular Therapy for transplanting bone marrow and tissue.
Advanced clinical services Examples: PET or PET/CT scanner, intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging, intensity-modulated radiation therapy, bone scan.
Advanced technologies Examples: PET or PET/CT scanner, intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging, intensity-modulated radiation therapy, bone scan.
Availability of subspecialists Having certain specialists, surgeons and other medical staff available for consultation and care, such as a pediatric anesthesiologist and pediatric head and neck surgeon.
Bone marrow transplant services Number of available bone marrow transplant services, such as transplantation from both related and unrelated donors; recognition by the National Marrow Donor Program; membership in the Pediatric Blood and Marrow Transplant Consortium; transplant volume.
Bone marrow transplant survival Percentage of patients ages 16 or younger who received allogeneic blood marrow transplants in the past three years and survived for at least 100 days after transplant.
Cancer patient volume Relative number of patients in past year who had specified disorders or received specified procedures.
Clinical support services Surgical ICU, genetic testing/counseling, pediatric acute pain/sedation service, neonatal ICU, pediatric anesthesia program, pediatric infectious disease program, pediatric pain management program, pediatric ICU, rapid response team and infection control facilities.
Commitment to best practices Examples: regular morbidity and mortality conferences, quarterly tumor boards, significant time spent in managing certain conditions.
Commitment to clinical research Examples: degree of participation in clinical trials and bench-to-bedside research, such as cancer research networks and phase 1 and 2 clinical trials for leukemia, brain tumors and sarcomas.
Fellowship programs Active training programs in pediatric hematology-oncology and either neuroradiology or interventional radiology.
New cancer patient volume Relative number of new cancer patients in past two years.
Palliative care program Formal program for families of children with end-of-life illnesses or chronic or life-limiting conditions. Additional credit for cancer patients referred to program.
Palliative care program Formal program for families of children with end-of-life illnesses or with chronic or life-limiting conditions. Additional credit for cancer patients referred to program.
Specialized clinics and programs Examples: clinical brain tumor program, clinical bone and soft tissue sarcomas program, clinical leukemia/lymphoma program, comprehensive longer-term survivors program, pediatric limb-sparing surgery program, fertility preservation program.
Surgery volume Relative number of patients in specialty who had operations for brain and solid tumors in past year.
Three-year survival Reflects survival of patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia and neuroblastoma three years after beginning treatment.
 

Cardiology & Heart Surgery

Adult congenital heart program Availability of adult heart program for inherited or congenital heart disorders. Additional credit if program is listed with Adult Congenital Heart Association and offers features such as formal plan to transition patients from pediatric to adult program.
Advanced clinical services Examples: dedicated cardiac surgical OR, remote patient monitoring, fetal echocardiographic testing, ventricular assist devices, cardiac intensive care program, cardiovascular genetics clinic.
Advanced technologies CT angiography, cardiac MRI, transcatheter arrhythmia ablation, 24/7 ECMO program, transesophageal echocardiographic testing during surgeries.
Availability of subspecialists Having certain specialists, surgeons and other medical staff available for consultation and care, such as a pediatric cardiothoracic surgeon, pediatric cardiac intensivist, interventionalist and electrophysiologist.
Catheter procedure volume Relative frequency of catheter procedures such as stenting and correction of atrial and ventricular arrythmthmias in past year.
Clinical support services Surgical ICU, pediatric acute pain/sedation service, neonatal ICU, pediatric anesthesia program, pediatric infectious disease program, pediatric pain management program, pediatric ICU, rapid response team and reverse isolation/infection control facilities.
Commitment to best practices Examples: participation in regular morbidity and mortality conferences, active home surveillance for infants with heart defects, follow-up program for patients with or at risk for neurodevelopmental complications.
Commitment to clinical research Degree of participation in clinical trials and bench-to-bedside research. Examples: externally audited, national quality improvement research networks such as Pediatric Heart Research Network, Congenital Cardiac Anesthesia Society, National Cardiovascular Disease Registry.
Congenital heart program Credit for tracking and reporting data and for volume and type of procedures performed, including 100 or more congenital heart procedures in past year and treating at least one patient with a Berlin Heart or other ventricular assist device.
Fellowship programs Active training programs in pediatric cardiology congenital cardiac surgery and thoracic surgery.
Heart transplant program Reflects recognition by United Network for Organ Sharing as heart or heart-lung transplant program and number of transplants in past four years.
Norwood surgery volume Reflects number of Norwood Stage 1 procedures in past year.
Prevention of pressure ulcers Having lower rates of stage 3, state 4 and unstageable hospital-acquired pressure ulcers.
Surgery volume Relative number of patients in specialty who had operations to correct certain congenital heart defects in past year.
Specialized clinics and programs Certain catheter procedures offered to one or more patients in past year. Examples: balloon angioplasty, stent implantation, transcatheter occlusion of cardiac shunts, transcatheter arrhythmia ablation, ablation for atrial tachycardia.
Survival after heart transplant Reflects one- and three-year post-transplant survival.
Survival after Norwood surgery Reflects survival from Norwood Stage 1 procedure.
Survival after complex surgery Survival following moderately complex to very difficult heart surgery in past two years.
 

Diabetes & Endocrinology

Advanced clinical services Examples: certified trainers in continuous glucose monitoring for families; diabetes and endocrinology support staff with social workers, dietitians and psychologists; diabetes-specific support group for parents and families.
Advanced technologies Examples: PET or PET/CT scanning, diagnostic radioisotope scan, endocrine testing, radiation isolation room, thyroidectomy, fine needle aspiration of thyroid nodule.
Availability of subspecialists Having certain specialists, surgeons and other medical staff available for consultation and care, such as pediatric neurosurgeon and pediatric endocrinologist.
Clinical support services Surgical ICU, genetic testing/counseling, neonatal ICU, pediatric anesthesia program, pediatric infectious disease program, pediatric pain management program, pediatric ICU, rapid response team, reverse isolation/infection control facilities.
Commitment to best practices Examples: clinical database for assessing quality of diabetes care, written consensus protocols for inpatient management of diabetic ketoacidosis, high percentage of inpatients seen by member of diabetes program, high percentage of outpatients with documented blood sugar results.
Commitment to clinical research Degree of participation in specialty-specific research activities such as clinical trials and other bench-to-bedside research.
Diabetes & Endocrinology patient volume Relative number of patients in past year who had specified disorders or received specified procedures.
Diabetes care options How many of four alternatives are available to patients in a pediatric diabetes program: insulin pump for children age 5 or older, insulin pump for children younger than age 5, pump plus basal insulin injection, and basal insulin injection with rapid-acting insulin analog.
Diabetic patient management Reflects successful prevention of serious problems in children with type 1 diabetes and keeping blood sugar levels in check.
Fellowship program Active training program in pediatric endocrinology.
Hypothyroid patient management Relative percentage of treated hypothyroid children who test normal and of hypothyroid infants who began treatment before three weeks of age.
Specialized clinics and programs Examples: programs for lipid disorders, hypertension, comprehensive weight management and Turner syndrome; clinics for outpatients with type 2 diabetes, outpatients with pre-diabetes, adolescents and young adults with diabetes.
 

Gastroenterology & GI Surgery

Advanced clinical services Examples: pediatric GI and liver specialists; pediatric interventional radiologists; support groups for inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, liver disease and other digestive disorders.
Advanced technologies PET or PET/CT scanner, magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, magnetic resonance enterography, dual-emission X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan, capsule endoscopy, endoscopic band ligation, esophageal impedance monitoring, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, and antroduodenal and full colonic motility studies, esophageal dilation and alternative hemostatis therapies.
Availability of subspecialists Having certain specialists, surgeons and other medical staff available for consultation and care, such as pediatric general surgeon and pediatric gastroenterologist.
Clinical support services Surgical ICU, genetic testing/counseling, pediatric acute pain/sedation service, neonatal ICU, pediatric anesthesia program, pediatric infectious disease program, pediatric pain management program, pediatric ICU, rapid response team, infection control facilities.
Commitment to best practices Examples: multidisciplinary morbidity and mortality conferences, IRB-approved protocols that provide GI patients access to drugs or devices, patient education material.
Commitment to clinical research Degree of participation in specialty-specific research activities such as clinical trials and other bench-to-bedside research.
Fellowship program Active training program in pediatric gastroenterology & GI surgery.
Gastroenterology & GI Surgery patient volume Relative number of patients in past year who had specified disorders or received specified procedures.
Liver transplant program Reflects liver transplant program recognized by United Network for Organ Sharing and relative number of patients receiving liver transplants in the past two years.
Nonsurgical procedure volume Relative number of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures such as imaging the gall bladder or pancreas or banding the stomach performed by means of endoscopy, a tube inserted through the throat or other body opening and moved to a targeted area.
Prevention of pressure ulcers Having lower rates of stage 3, state 4 and unstageable hospital-acquired pressure ulcers.
Specialized clinics and programs Examples: programs for intestinal rehabilitation, cystic fibrosis treatment, childhood obesity management, inflammatory bowel disease, chronic liver disease.
Surgery volume Relative number of patients in specialty who had bowel lengthening, bariatric surgery and other specified operations in past year.
Survival after liver transplant Reflects patient survival three years following transplant.
 

Neonatology

Advanced clinical services Examples: level 1 or 2 pediatric trauma center status as certified by American College of Surgeons or state licensing board, neonatal ICU-specific pharmacist who rounds with clinical team, NICU-designated nutritionist, social workers.
Advanced technologies PET or PET/CT scanner, continuous EEG monitoring with pediatric neurology support, unsedated MRI, molecular diagnostic/virology laboratory, specialized chemistry laboratory with tandem mass spectroscopy.
Availability of subspecialists Having certain specialists, surgeons and other medical staff available for consultation and care, such as a pediatric head and neck surgeon, pediatric neonatologist and pediatric anesthesiologist.
Clinical support services Genetic testing/counseling, pediatric acute pain/sedation service, pediatric anesthesia program, pediatric infectious disease program, pediatric pain management program, rapid response team, infection control facilities.
Commitment to best practices Examples: adhering to recommended maximum patient loads, standardized handoff tools, simulation/training laboratories for neonatal intensive care procedures, newborn cardiac patients receiving neonatology consults.
Commitment to clinical research Degree of participation in clinical trials and bench-to-bedside research. Examples: externally audited, national NICU treatment, quality-improvement research networks such as the Vermont Oxford Network and Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (ELSO) data exchange network.
Fellowship programs Active training programs in pediatric neonatology. Examples: pediatric neurology, congenital cardiac surgery, neonatal-perinatal medicine, pediatric cardiology.
Heart-lung machine for newborns 24/7 availability of ECMO (extracorporeal membrane oxygenation) heart-lung device for newborns, trained ECMO team.
Neonatology patient volume Relative number of patients in past year who had specified disorders or received specified procedures.
Patient and family services The eight services listed in “Terms used across specialties,” above, plus an additional seven. Examples: family support center, breast pumping rooms, lactation specialists, 24/7 parental visitation, sibling visitation, neonatal ICU-specific parent advisory committee, and NICU-specific parent-to-parent support groups.
Specialized clinics and programs Examples: craniofacial team, spina bifida team, comprehensive retinopathy of prematurity program, neonatal-neuro intensive care program, NICU specific palliative care program, metabolic team, bowel rehabilitation team, home ventilator management team, and neuro-developmental follow-up clinic for high-risk NICU patients.
 

Nephrology

Advanced clinical services Continuous renal replacement therapy; hemodialysis; peritoneal dialysis; UNOS-recognized kidney transplant program; maintenance dialysis staff that includes clinical nurses, social workers, and dietitians, and level 1 or 2 pediatric trauma center.
Advanced technology PET or PET/CT scanning.
Availability of subspecialists Having certain specialists, surgeons and other medical staff available for consultation and care, such as pediatric infectious disease specialist, pediatric anesthesiologist and pediatric nephrologist.
Catheter procedure volume Relative number of catheter placements in past two years.
Clinical support services Surgical ICU; pediatric acute pain/sedation service; neonatal ICU; pediatric anesthesia program; pediatric infectious disease program; pediatric pain management program; pediatric ICU; rapid response team; infection control facilities.
Commitment to best practices Examples: participation in regular interdisciplinary clinical conferences for urology/uroradiology and renal pathology to review and coordinate patient care, offering formal transition program for kidney transplant patients from pediatric to adult care, maintaining database of kidney transplant patients.
Commitment to clinical research Participation in specialty-specific research activities such as clinical trials and other bench-to-bedside research. Examples: clinical trials in organ transplantation in children, Midwest Pediatric Nephrology Consortium, International Pediatric Dialysis Network.
Dialysis patients receiving transplants Reflects percentage of patients on maintenance dialysis who received kidney transplant within two years.
Dialysis volume Relative number of patients in past two years who received regular dialysis.
Fellowship program Active training program in pediatric nephrology.
Kidney biopsy volume Relative number of kidney biopsies during past two years.
Kidney transplant volume Relative number of transplants during past two years from deceased or living donors.
Nephrology patient volume Relative number of patients in past year who had specified disorders or received specified procedures.
Patient and family services The eight services listed in “Terms used across specialties,” above, and four additional services: programs to support patients in maintenance dialysis such as teachers dedicated to working with patients, standard review of patient’s individualized education program, and/or summer camp.
Preventing biopsy complications Reflects percentage of patients without complications after receiving kidney biopsy.
Prevention of dialysis-related infections Success in minimizing dialysis-related infections.
Survival after kidney transplant Reflects one- and three-year survival of patients and transplanted kidneys.
Transplants to dialysis patients Percentage of patients receiving maintenance dialysis who received kidney transplants within the past two years.
 

Neurology & Neurosurgery

Advanced clinical services Examples: pediatric headache clinic with psychologists specializing in headache biofeedback and preventive therapy, sneuroanesthesia program, neurological rehabilitation program.
Advanced technologies Examples: PET or PET/CT scan, 3T MRI, neurophysiological intraoperative monitoring, magnetoencephalography.
Availability of subspecialists Having certain specialists, surgeons and other medical staff available for consultation and care, such as pediatric neurosurgeon, pediatric neurologist and certified neuroscience nurse.
Clinical support services Surgical ICU, pediatric acute pain/sedation service, neonatal ICU, pediatric anesthesia program, pediatric infectious disease program, pediatric pain management program, pediatric ICU, rapid response team, reverse isolation/infection control facilities.
Clinic patient volume Relative number of clinic patients in past year with certain disorders or who received certain specified care.
Commitment to best practices Examples: neuropsychological evaluations before and after surgery for benign and malignant brain tumors, maintaining a surgical mortality database, regular interdisciplinary care conferences.
Commitment to clinical research Participation in clinical trials and bench-to-bedside research. Additional credit for belonging to a national Phase 1 neuro-oncology clinical research consortium.
Epilepsy workup and care volume Relative number of evaluations and procedures for epilepsy in past year.
Fellowship programs Active training programs in pediatric neurology and neurosurgery.
Management of epilepsy patients Relative success in treating children and infants with epilepsy.
Preventing surgical complications Success in avoiding surgical complications and readmissions.
Specialized clinics and programs Examples: clinics or programs for cerebrovascular accident, movement disorders, spina bifida, tuberous sclerosis, brachial plexus, neonatal neurology.
Surgery volume Relative number of patients in specialty who had operations for seizures, spasticity and other specified disorders in past year.
Surgical survival Reflects relative number of deaths following surgery for selected neurological disorders such as brain tumors, head trauma and medically untreatable epilepsy.
 

Orthopedics

Advanced clinical services Examples: comprehensive pediatric orthopedic program with dedicated pediatric imaging center, multidisciplinary musculoskeletal oncology program, motion laboratory.
Advanced technologies PET/CT scanning, bone scan, remote retrieval of test results, images and medical records.
Availability of subspecialists Having certain specialists, surgeons and other medical staff available for consultation and care, such as pediatric anesthesiologist, pediatric radiologists specializing in diagnostic and interventional radiology, pediatric orthopedic surgeon.
Clinical support services Surgical ICU; pediatric acute pain/sedation service; neonatal ICU; pediatric anesthesia program; pediatric infectious disease program; pediatric pain management program; pediatric ICU; rapid response team; infection control facilities.
Commitment to best practices Examples: having one or more active or candidate members of the Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America, pediatric imaging center with ultrasonographers having specialized training in hip exams, pediatric imaging center that minimizes radiation exposure, regular multidisciplinary morbidity and mortality conferences.
Committing to clinical research DDegree of participation in specialty-specific research activities such as clinical trials and other bench-to-bedside research.
Fellowship program Active training program in pediatric orthopedics.
Orthopedics patient volume Relative number of patients in past year who had specified disorders or received specified procedures.
Preventing surgical complications Reflects percentage of patients without complications following surgery for scoliosis, additional credit for low percentage of infections following spinal fusion surgery.
Specialized clinics and programs Clinics or programs for brachial plexus, muscular dystrophy, neurofibromatosis, pain, skeletal dysplasia, spasticity, spina bifida and sports medicine.
 

Pulmonology

Advanced clinical services Examples: respiratory therapists, certified asthma educators, gastroenterologist and endocrinologist who participate in patient care conferences, cystic fibrosis center accredited by Cystic Fibrosis Foundation, sleep center.
Advanced technology PET or PET/CT scanning.
Asthma management success Reflects percentage of patients following specific asthma management protocols.
Availability of subspecialists Having certain specialists, surgeons and other medical staff available for consultation and care, such as pediatric radiologist, pediatric pulmonologist, pediatric sleep medicine physician.
Clinical support services Surgical ICU, pediatric acute pain/sedation service, neonatal ICU, pediatric anesthesia program, pediatric infectious disease program, pediatric pain management program, pediatric ICU, rapid response team, infection control facilities.
Commitment to best practices Examples: consensus treatment and management plans for asthma exacerbations, bronchiolitis, croup, cystic fibrosis, pneumonia,tracheostomy or ventilator-dependent patients.
Commitment to clinical research Degree of participation in specialty-specific research activities such as clinical trials and other bench-to-bedside research.
Fellowship program Active training program in pediatric pulmonology.
Lung transplant program Reflects United Network for Organ Sharing recognition, number of transplants in past two years and three-year survival rate.
Management of cystic fibrosis patients Reflects success at managing lung function and nutritional status in cystic fibrosis patients.
Management of lung disease of prematurity Reflects percentage of patients younger than 24 months of age receiving recommended care for this condition.
Management of neuromuscular weakness disorder Reflects percentage of muscular dystrophy patients age 5 or older who had a lung function test in past year or within 90 days of undergoing general anesthesia.
Nonsurgical procedure volume Relative number of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures such as bronchoscopy and infant pulmonary function testing performed by means of endoscopy, a tube inserted through the throat or other body opening and moved to a targeted area.
Pulmonology patient volume Relative number of patients in past year who had specified disorders or received specified procedures.
Success with asthma inpatients Reflects ability to limit deaths, readmissions and length of stay
Ventilator patient survival Reflects success at preventing deaths of patients on ventilators as a result of accidental obstruction or other events.
 

Urology

Advanced clinical services Examples: shock wave lithotripsy, American College of Surgeons level 1 or 2 pediatric trauma center certification, laparoscopic orchiopexy, percutaneously nephrolithotripsy.
Advanced technologies PET or PET/CT scan, onsite urodynamic equipment, video pediatric urodynamic fluoroscopy.
Availability of subspecialists Having certain specialists, surgeons, and other medical staff available for consultation and care, such as pediatric critical care specialist, pediatric urology surgeon and pediatric urologist.
Clinical support services Surgical ICU, pediatric acute pain/sedation service, neonatal ICU, pediatric anesthesia program, pediatric infectious disease program, pediatric pain management program, pediatric ICU, rapid response team, infection control facilities.
Commitment to best practices Examples: having a formal program for tracking surgical site infections for major urological procedures and regular mortality and morbidity conferences.
Commitment to clinical research Degree of participation in clinical trials and bench-to-bedside research. Additional credit for prospective randomized clinical trials, prospective observational studies, or prospective clinical databases on patient care.
Fellowship program Active training program in pediatric urology.
Minimally invasive procedure volume Relative number of patients in past year who had shock wave lithotripsy, laparoscopic and robotic orchiopexy, and laparoscopic pyeloplasty and full or partial kidney removal.
Prevention of surgical complications Reflects relative success at avoiding surgical complications and readmissions. Complications and adverse events include pyeloplasty failure, orchiopexy failure, reoperation or readmission.
Prevention of urinary tract infections Reflects results of efforts to prevent catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI).
Specialized clinics and programs Clinics or programs for spina bifida, voiding difficulties, kidney and urinary-tract stones, prenatal intervention, disorders of sexual differentiation, and genitourinary reconstructive surgery.
Surgery volume Relative number of patients in specialty who had a kidney removed or other specified operations in past year.
Urology patient volume Relative number of patients in past year who had specified disorders or received specified procedures.